National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Climatic Data Center
Sandy precipitation totals
Post-tropical cyclone Sandy brought heavy rainfall to a large area of the Mid-Atlantic, Northeast, and New England. Northern Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey received the heaviest precipitation as Sandy moved inland after making landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey on October 29th. As Sandy transitioned from a tropical cyclone to a post-tropical cyclone shortly before landfall, a wedge of dry air was entrained into the northern side of the storm, limiting rainfall totals just to the north of Sandy’s center in New York and Connecticut.
The remnant low pressure system from Hurricane Sandy brought heavy snowfall to the high elevations of the Central and Southern Appalachians. The storm shattered both October monthly and single-storm snowfall records across several states. Snowfall totals greater than 12 inches were observed in — Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The table below provides select storm total snowfall across the region (29 October through 1 November). A storm total snowfall map is also provided. Data source:Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-D)
Historical Minimum Central Pressure Readings
The following list diplays selected minimum central pressure readings from storm systems that affected the United States. It is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all intense storm systems. The pressure value observed at Matecumbe Bay, Florida in 1935 is recognized as the lowest sea-level pressure observed in the United States by the National Climate Extremes Committee.
|Sea Level Pressure|
|892.3||September 2, 1935||Matecumbe Key, Florida||Florida Keys Labor Day Hurricane measured onboad a docked ship at Craig, Florida. For more details see:Monthly Weather Review publication for October 1935|
|908.9||August 17, 1969||Bay St. Louis, Mississippi||Hurricane Camille|
|922.1||August 24, 1992||Homestead, Florida||Hurricane Andrew|
|926.8||September 14, 1919||Dry Tortugas||Atlantic Gulf Hurricane of 1919. Measurement made onboard a docked ship. Official landfall south of Corpus Cristi.|
|927.0||October 25, 1977||Dutch Harbor, Alaska||Not verified|
|928.9||September 16, 1928||Palm Beach, Floida||San Felipe-Okeechobee Hurricane 1928|
|929.6||September 16, 1928||West Palm Beach, Florida||Not verified|
|929.9||September 1960||Florida||Hurricane Donna|
|945.5||October 29, 2012||Atlantic City, New Jersey||Post-Tropical Cyclone SandyStation site|
|946.2||September 21, 1938||Long Island, New York||New England Hurricane 1938|
|948.3||October 29, 2012||Atlantic City Airport, New Jersey||Post-Tropical Cyclone SandyASOS data|
|951.6||March 3, 1914||Bridgehampton, New York||Not verified|
|955.0||January 13, 1913||Canton, New York||Lowest non-tropical system whose pressure can be confirmed|
|955.0||March 7, 1932||Block Island, Rhode Island||Lowest non-tropical system whose pressure can be confirmed|
|955.2||October 26, 2010||Big Fork, Minnesota||NWS Event Page|
|956.0||January 26, 1978||Mount Clemmons, Michigan||Weather Log|
|956.0||October 26, 2010||International Falls, Minnesota||NWS Event Page|
|957.3||January 26, 1978||Port Huron, Michigan||Weather Log|
|958.5||January 26, 1978||Cleveland, Ohio||Verified through NCDC WBAN 14820|
Sandy Storm Surge & Wind Summary
Post-tropical storm Sandy packed a punch as it came ashore near Atlantic City, NJ on the evening of October 29. The timing of landfall near high astronomical tide and the large size of the storm generated many impacts across the eastern third of the U.S. Select storm surge statistics in addition to some of the highest peak wind speeds recorded during this storm are highlighted on this page. All data are preliminary unless noted otherwise.
Storm Surge Summary:
Sandy's 9-foot storm surge in New York City coincided with the approximate time of high astronomical tide creating a record shattering tidal maximum the evening of October 29 of 13.88 feet at The Battery in New York City Harbor. The previous high tide record of 11.20 feet was set during the great hurricane of 1821. As a result, extensive flooding occurred across some of the more vulnerable locations in Manhattan and other New York City boroughs, causing subways and tunnels to flood. Water was chest high on the streets in Queens as firefighters attempted to rescue residents from a neighborhood of homes which were engulfed by flames.
Storm surge at the Delaware River in Philadelphia crested at 10.62 feet early on October 30, breaking the previous record of 10.50 feet set in November 1950 and tied in April 2011. The Delaware River usually doesn't flood due to tidal surges, but the combination of storm runoff, high astronomical tide and Sandy's record low pressure traversing the region just after landfall all contributed to this record breaking flood.
High tide in Atlantic City, NJ ripped up piers on the shore and caused extensive flooding downtown, where knee-deep water was reported. Notable high tides across the Northeast are listed in the table below.
|Kings Point, NY||14.31 feet||~12.5 feet above average|
|The Battery in New York City Harbor, NY||13.88 feet||~7 feet above flood stage|
|New Haven, CT||12.30 feet||~9 feet above average|
|Delaware River in Philadelphia, PA||10.62 feet||~2.4 feet above flood stage|
|Quonset Point, RI||7.22 feet|
|Atlantic City, NJ||8.90 feet|
|Delaware City, DE||9.74 feet|
Post-tropical storm Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, NJ around 8pm on October 29 with maximum sustained winds of 80 mph. Unlike many landfalling systems, Sandy was exceptionally large and impacts were felt from Georgia to Lake Michigan and throughout the eastern U.S. and into New England. Storm warnings were issued as far west as southern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Waves generated by strong winds measured more than 21 feet high at a southern Lake Michigan buoy; the second highest waves on record in Lake Michigan.
|Location||Peak Wind Gust|
|Harrisville, MI||60 mph|
|Port Sanilac, MI||65 mph|
|Fort Gratiot, MI||75 mph|
|Allentown, PA||81 mph|
|Highland Beach MD||79 mph|
|Chester Gap, VA||79 mph|
|Sandy Hook, NJ tide gauge||87 mph|
|Dennisville, NJ||81 mph|
|Montclair, NJ||88 mph|
|JFK Airport, NY||79 mph|
|Eatons Neck, NY||94 mph|
|Madison, CT||85 mph|
|Wellfleet, MA||81 mph|
|Mount Mansfield, VT||72 mph|